^4% 4 Chemistry of Paints WITH PRACTICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE USE OF PAINT AND THE SELECTION OF COLORS. DESIGNED AND MADE BY HARRISON BROTHERS & CO. PHILADELPHIA, 1890. ti: \m JOHN HARRISON FOUNDER OF THE HOUSE OF HARRISON BROS. & CO. 1793. THIi Cl IlCMI^l K\- 1 '.MX 1 I N I'chruary ISS6, a coniinittcc of the Master Painters of Phila- ddplua called upon Harrison Uvos. & Co. to request aid in . ntertain.n;; the Master Painters' Association of the United States am LaiKub. vvl hold its reRular annual meeting' in h ladelphia m the follownig July. The firm promptly suhscril)ed to the ^^eneral entertannnent fund, and favorably considered the suj^-e.tion of the connnittee to open their works to the inspection ot the inemhersof the Association, so that they miRht vievy the opera- tions of panit-makinK throu-h all the various processes, heKinninir at the crude material and endin- with the hi-hlv-finished pigments in condition to meet the varied recpiirenients of the trade. This was an especial consideration on the part of this firm, as their works are usuall\' closed to visitors because of the employment of niuch special machinery and processes not elsewhere in use. Never- theless, as these factories are the only plant in which the manufacture ot acids and chenncals is conducted in conjunction with the manu- tacture of paints, and as the association mi^-ht not have a similar opportunity ofTerin<r such interest and instruction, the firm waived all rules and precedent so that the local committee might be in posi- tion to entertain their guests in an unusual manner. ^ The inspection of large works (especially such as those at (xrays Ferry, which include thirty-five different buildings and departments) at any time is more or less fatiguing, but in the middle of summer it may he particularly so. owing to the heat ; it was, therefore, thought desirable to make special provision for the comtort, as well as for the instruction, of the visitors The entire matter was given in charge of one of the firm's business managers, who was enjoined to spare no expense in making complete in every respect the arrangements for a satisfactor\' and pleasant visit. 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Committees from the clerks and salesmen were appointed to take charge of the various details. After careful planning, a route was laid throughout the entire works, so that all might be seen without retracing an}' steps, and, where necessar\% special passage-ways were constructed to accomplish this end. A guide-book was care- full}^ prepared, and all the prominent points were numbered in large figvues, with corresponding numbers in the guide-book for reference, so that, b}^ the aid of the book, any one could readily understand the connection of the different factories and the different processes. A special train of seven passenger coaches was pro^'ided to carr}' the members of the Association from the Broad Street Sta- tion (which was near their general meeting hall) directl>' into the works. Ijpon leaving the train, preliminary light refreshments were provided, so that prior to starting on the tour all might be in good trim. Although the progress through the works was rapid, several hours were occupied in making the inspection, and it was nearly dark when finished. The visitors were then conducted into a large tent erected for the purpose, where tables had been set and covers laid for over four hundred guests ; brilliantly lighted with electric and Siemens lamps and elaborately decorated with natural plants and draperies, the scene impressed ever>' one with its richness and its beaut}'. A banquet, ser\'ed by one of Philadelphia's famous caterers and enlivened by the music of a militar}' band, was thoroughly enjoyed. The usual speeches concluded the affair, and the special train landed the beaming and rotund painters safely at the Broad Street Station before midnight. The arrangements for the exhibition of the works and foi the entertainment of the guests of the firm were unanimousl> declared fitting and complete. The following description of the processes of paint making is largely taken from the guide-book prepared for the above- mentioned occasion, and it is hoped that it will interest and instrucl: all who may have anything to do with j^aints. Pigments and material used in the manufacture of paints are so essentially chemical products that their consideration is involved in that of manufacturing chemistr}-; and, as manu- facfluring chemistr}' so largely depends on sulphuric acid, it is well to hav^ some information as to the manufacflure of this article and its relation, through the many intermediate processe*i. to the manufacture of paints. THE CHE.tr/S7Jiy OF PAI.XTS. Brim- stone. Stilphur Burners. Thi,s gas, W nil that thought we start our guests at the beo-in- nuigot chemical proces.ses, showin| the pile of brim- stoue, which ,s the article as recdved from sSly siuelted there in a primitive way from the brimstone bearin<. rock This is cnide bnmstone, and it is procured by a crude proems ■ but by selection a wonderfully pure article can be had ^ ' it- }^^ k'^T^ '^'', '* ^""'^ '" t^^ furnaces arranged for m this ^^^^- the fumes are similar to those o-fven from a sulphur match, and are sulphurous-acid "-as by coming m contact with oxidizing material^crenerallv ^m viced m the form of nitrate of soda-fs converted into the hi<?er n^f 1 % '"^P,^^""'^ ^<^id. The hot gases from the buyers are parsed through a tower called a "Glover" tower whicHroJides oxidizing material b^- means of a cascade of mixed sulphuric add Sln'cLmblr^^ "'''"^'' ''''' ^'"^^^ '^^^-^ -^° ^^^ 4e We now reach the chamber floor and have a view between two of the leaden chambers, which l««<^^" ^^?, ^M°'^'" ^" ^^^ factory- as " Chambers 3 and ^^''^'^i'^"- them t^ T^ °^ ^^"^^ ^"^ ^^^^^ '^ ^^5 feet. We walk between XlZ}^ continue our iin-estigation of the process. In these chambers there is a continual commingling of the sulphurous fumes, the nitrous gases and steam: also more or lels S? wS flows ,11 through the sulphur burners during the combust on of the bnmstone. We can hardly say "air," because it is largely nitrogen, or devitalized air-that is, air with itsoxvgen extracted bustroy^^^^^i?^ ^°i!'^ ^Z ^h^, sulphur in the process of com: bustion^ The draught through the chambers carries these mingled gases along, depo.siting on the wav, bv a continual aroppmg, the sulphuric add, which collects at the bottom The acid thus collected is known as "chamber" acid. \Ve now reach the end of the chambers and make our exit from the building opposite a tower Ihis IS known as a " Gav-Lussac " tower, from the name of its famous inventor, and is intended to remove any valuable constituents remaining in the gases which have passed through the chambers, and which were not deposited m tne iKjuicl acid. In the process of removal a cascade of acid IS emplo>-ed, as in the Glo\-er tower, the object, however beine -o take from, instead of to give to, the gases. The acid, flowing 5 Gay-Lussac Tower. THE CHEMISTRY OF FAIXTS. CDiitiiiually over proper niaterial, presents a large surface to the ascending gases and dissolves out the valuable portions. Finally, the exit is through the high pipe; and when the chambers are working well, the escaping gases are mainly made up of steam and nitrogen. We now reach the concentrating apparatus. The acid from the chambers is first passed into leaden t^-at^ng P^^^^ supported on iron framework enclosed in brick, in Apparatus, which the first concentration is made. From these it passes into the platinum stills, of which there are two sets constantly at w^ork. These stills are ver}- costly appa- ratus, although externally they do not impress one as beino very valuable. They consist of a number of platiimm dishes enclosed in lead; each dish has an adual mone\'-\'alue of some $2000. The Theo • ^^^P^^^^^ ^^^^ '^^ ^'^^V^ eager for water — so eager that of concen^ ^^ ^ saucerful of oil of vitriol be exposed it will draw tration. the atuiospheric moisture to it and soon run over the sides of the dish, increasing its bulk, and weakening itself accordingly. Concentration simply consists of depriving the acid of its water by means of heat. Immense quantities of water are necessar}- to surround the apparatus to cool the acid after concentration, its temperature being from 600 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit when it leaves the platinum apparatus. Next we see the apparatus for moving oil of vitriol. It consists ot large receivers made of iron lined with lead, into which the acid flows; when filled, the supply is cut off, and air, under heavy pressure, is forced on top, driving the acid out from the bottom by a suitable outlet. As acid is almost twice as heavv as water, it will take about twice the pressure to lift it to any height; con- sequently, the air-pressure required is sometimes ver\' great, the acid frequently being lifted to a height of sixty feet, 'it is forced by this system to the different portions of the works. Its uses in tlie paint department are numerous. r..^^}^Y^i^ ^^'"^t ^^^ ^^''^^^>' ^^^" referred to as a sort of i.rime comL-2u^^^^^ manufacturing processes; it might almcist be tHS K ^ J^ "-^^^^ "^^^'^^ t^^^ machinerv of a facton . neZl Ivi?!^ t^^f^ '^ ""Tl ^ paint-or, in fact, anvtliing con- Lnd. IV''V'1^'~'"'''H^^^^ ^^^'"^ important material cannot be iHrep^ration^^^ or <iirectly entering into, or connected with. hJh^^^^ 'l^ ^^/-^ ingredient, naturallv. of that great bugbear of the painting fraternity, "barvtes," which is a con; J^r THE CHEMISTRY OE PAIXTS. pound of banum and sulphuric acid. It will be found in all chrome yellows which are paler than a neutral medium, and even in this It IS a constituent of some of the salts employed in its manutacture. It will be found in some fonn in the majority of the earth paints. It is employed in the refining and bleaching of oil In tnese works there are four sets of sulphur burners such as described, each burning daily 6000 pounds of the brimstone or a total of 24,000 pounds. The furnaces work continuously' day and niglit, weekdays and Sundays, stopping only when necessary to repair the chambers. The daily product is about i is 000 pounds of chamber acid, equal to nearly 75,000 pounds of con- centrated sulphuric acid or oil of vitriol. As sulphuric acid enters largely into the composition of alum, the manufacture of this will now be described. We enter the claA-grinding room. This clay is knov;n as bauxite, and the best deposits are found in ^^""^ ^^^^ the South of France. It is ver>' rich in the ma- ^^"^'"g^- tenal known as alumina. The clay, after having been thoroughly calcined, is ground very finely in the mills seen, which are kept continually running to grind the large quantity daily used. When this clay is mixed with sulphuric acid, the alumina is extracted and is finally utilized as alum. Next we enter what is known as an "attacking" department. You will here see the large vats for the treatment of the alum clay with sulphuric acid, which extracts the valuable constituent, leaving behind all the insoluble and useless material. Now we enter another building, used for the separation of the extraneous material from the alumina solution, also for the partial purification of the same. In the cellar of this building we notice engines and mills for the grinding of some of the material used in the purification processes ; and on the second floor we find a number of filters, which are used for taking out the remaining light insoluble matter which will not readily settle. We pass more filters and settling boxes, and see the alum boiled do\vn to a thick mass which is fluid when hot, but which be- coines solid when cold, somewhat resembling clear sugar-candy. This is perfectly pure sulphate of alumina, or concentrated alum. We continue through this building, passing stacks of alum ready for shipment. Alum bears a highly ^"""^^^ important part in the manufacture of colors, and it *'^^"'°' is very necessar\' that it be pure. The purest made is that known 7 Attacking Depart- ment. w^m THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. as "Turkey-Red" alum and is intended for turke3^-red dyers; it must be so pure or free from other substances that one pound of dele- terious matter should not be found in 100,000 pounds of the alum. Alum is interesting to the paint man as gi\'ing •^^"c^i^rr^ the basis for carmine and nearly all lake colors, and is used also in greens, yellows, Prussian blues, and other paints. The producl: of these works is about 300 barrels daily. The alum used in the color-making department is the Turkey-Red alum. We pass out of this building, cross one of the rail- Labo- ^Q^^ sidings, and go up stairs into the laboratorv^ ra ones. building, whcre, in one of the best-appointed and largest laboratories connected with any establishment, some half dozen chemists are continually at work examining the crude material that comes into the factory- and testing the finislied products. Besides the chemists employed in the laboratorv', each department is super\'ised by a chemist who has his own minor laborator}' or testing room. In all the processes of this establish- ment tests must continuall}^ be made to determine that the processes are being properly conducted. The "secrets" of the business of this firm are the employment of able talent and a close attention to chemical principles, backed up hy a liberal expenditure for experiment. Directly dependent on sulphuric acid is the manufacture of muriatic and nitric acids, which department is now visited. Muria • '^^^ ^^^^ ^^ made by treating common salt, or any and'xitric <^t^^^r muriate, with sulphuric acid, which takes the Acids. place of the muriatic acid, the latter being dri\'en oif as a gas and collected in the necessan- receivers; and for nitric acid the same process is used, nitrate of soda or any other nitrate being employed. Nitrate of soda, being a dangerous substance when near burning material, is always stored in a fire- proof vault. Acetic Acetic acid is also a dependent of the suli)huric- Acid. acid chamber, and the dejiartment for its manufac- ture is now properlv the next one to examine. The acetic acid employed in the arts is made primarilv bv the dr^• dis- tillation of wood. It is a product from the' manuf^icture of charcoal, known in its crude form as " pvrcligneous" acid; so that it may Ije concentrated and carried from'the charcoal works, which are principally in the woods, where timber for l)urning is abun- dant, it is mixed with lime, and is ilun \,^u.^^^^ -.. acetate of THE CHEMISTRY OF PAIXTS. lime — a ven' aromatic substance in its ordinan' impure state. By means of sulphuric and muriatic acids the acetic acid is separated from the acetate of lime, and by distillation collected in the neces- sarA' receivers. By undergoing various purification processes it is sufficienth' purified from the empyreumatic matters which, be- cause of its source of production, necessarily accompany it, to be used, when properly diluted with water, for household purposes. The acetic acid made in this wa}^ is preciseh' the same as that made from alcohol in the fermentation of cider and other alcoholic material. The quantity of acetic acid made daily in these w^orks is 16,000 pounds, which would be equal to the acid in 450 barrels of table vinegar. Acetic acid plays a ver>' important part in colof making, forming, when united with litharge, acetate of lead, or the well-known sugar of lead — probably more used in color making than any other salt. Aqua ammonia is a producT: of these works, but it is used only to a verv' limited extent in paint making. The usual process of making it is to heat sulphate of ammonia with quicklime in a tight cylinder; the quicklime Water of Ammonia. unites with the sulphuric acid and liberates the ammonia in gaseous form. The liberated gas is condu(5led to receivers charged with water, in which the gas is dissolved. The liquid ammonia, as usually sold, contains eight to ten per cent, of gas. The strongest made contains about twenty-seven per cent. _ The ammonia gas, by powerful pressure, may be condensed to a liquid which can be presented only in ver>' strong iron cylinders. This is known as anhvdrous ammonia, and because of the danger m its use will never be' employed for popular purposes. The original source of ammonia is principally in the manufacture of illuminat- ing gas, there colleding in the gas liquors. The pure water of ammonia is now obtained direcl from these liquors without first making the sulphate. Ammonia is ver>' useful to the painter and the householder. As a detergent it readily removes paint and varnish. It should be in ever>' household in the land. Of course it must be used quickly, as it evaporates rapidly and soon dissipates its strength. A fixed paint remover is made at these works, known as paint resolvent. It is in paste form, and is used by thinlv and evenly spreading it over the paint to be removed, which it soon softens, and which ma}' be then scraped away clean from the original surface. ^^-- --^^ ^- ^--"^^ invaluable to all painters. 9 Paint Resolvent, This will be found THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. White i.ead. ^^^^^^ ^^'^ ^ome to the most interesting of all articles to those who have to do with paints— white lead. Its manufaaure can be only briefly described. The materials used are pig lead, acetic acid, water and tan bark. B^' a sijiecial machine, the pig lead iscast automatically into flat round perforated plates about Ave inches in diameter, called buckles A quantity " BUCKLE" OF METALLIC LEAD, rCARTIinN COKROSION-1'OT. of these buckles is placed in earthenware pots or jars of about one gallon capaaty, each having two large holes in the side to permit the hnT^^''°" °^ ^f "'■ Lugs or shoulders a few inches from the bottom sustam the lead buckles and keen them fro touchmg the diluted acetic acid, which is ^l po "red h The pots are placed in layers on tan in housJs provided for the purpose, until built up fifteen or twentv feet hi^f or ijeds. ^ erj thmg ,s made properl>- t.ght. The tan soon heats Principle of ^'r lerments, and generates carbonic acid- the Corrosion. M'legar in the pots, under the influence of the 'he-it t. . u- ^''f'P"''^t^s a"d attacks the lead, placing it im state lafon Tn T'^ '^\'^^'^^^]i<^ -cid and moistufe now in f "e cSi lation In from sixty to ninety days the buckles of meta lie lend THE LllEMISTRV OF I'.MXTS. through vats and boxes in order to permit all the coarse particles to settle out and to wash out the reniaining vinegar uS? the milky hquid IS conducted to the final settling vat where ft settles tea stiff paste uliich is after^vard dried and^then gromid in oil The pig lead by the aid of the heat and vinegar, has united\x° h carbonic acid and water, increasing in weight nearly twentv-five percent., and m bulk several times. ' ""'^ -^ °^^ t;^/'^ ""T P™'''' V ^''^^' ''■^''''' ^^ gaining quite a reputa- ^,,„ tionwith many discriminating painters, is made upon Process precisely the same principles, but differenth- applied Lead. The pig ead, instead of being cast in buckles, is reduced to a fine powder; this powder IS moistened with the dilute acid or vinegar then so placed that carbonic-acid gas circulates freely through it the r^?W1 ""^■"r'"^^"''^^, f P^P^-" temperature. Sometinres this is called quick-process lead, because it may be made in two or ^r^in Tf'^''.^^' If the difference in the weights of the minute grain of lead powder and the cast buckle be considered, it is relativelN- a verj- slow process— much slower than the stack process n fur ^5 ^''^J'^'' '* '^"'^^^" ^^ the old Dutch method; and it is wel established that the more slowly the lead is corroded, the bet- ter the body of the white lead. We have seen all the apparatus for making the white lead from the pig metal to the dry white powder. Next in order, and im- mediately adjoining the drying-houses, we enter the department where the dr>- white lead is ground in oil, but will describe this later on, and will now go into the oxides department Passing a large stack of pig lead received from the cars on the adjoining siding, we enter the furnace- °''''^* °' room, where are found a number of retorts. The pio- ^^^^ lead IS placed in these; and when melted, the retorts tre made to revolve, thereby constantly exposing a fresh surface of melted lead to the atmosphere and effecting a rapid oxidation. This oxidation IS as much a combu.stion as in the case of the brimstone. The vital principle of the atmosphere, oxygen, combines with the lead the first combination, or when the smallest quantity is taken' giving litharge, or the yellow oxide, also known as massicot • a little more gives red lead, or red oxide, also known as minium It the lead be heated very hot. still more oxygen is taken up, and a brown oxide of no interest to painters is formed; in faA, in the ordinary- niaiiufacT:or>' such oxide would be called "burnt lead." \Ve rapidly pass through this building, by the mills in which the litharge from the retorts is ground up in water to sep- THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. arate the unoxidized portions, precisel}' as is done Grinding -^^ ^^ corrodiug department, previoush' described, by r'^^f oSdes the pans on which the separated fine litharge is dried, '°° "^ ' and by the mills in which the dry product is ground up ready for packing. The retort system — controlled by patents of Har- The Retort ^^^^^ '^xos. & Co.— for making red lead and litharge, System. ^^ showu here, gives a ven' pure product ; the lead is entirely guarded from contact with the flame, thereby pre- venting cinders and other dirt from the furnace becoming mixed with it^ as in the ordinar}^ apparatus, in Avhich the flame passes over it. A large part of the produci made here is used by flint- glass makers, and, as they can use only the ver\' purest of material, it follows that for all fine purposes in other lines of manufacture where these oxides are required the produci of this depart- ment should be used. The next in importance to the glass makers is the Oxides for yamish trade. The ' * Harrison' ' oxides are well known Makers among the particular varnish manufacturers, going to all parts of the countr\-, the Western manufacturers especially regarding them as standard goods. The same litharge that is used by glass makers and varnish manufacturers is employed in this factor}^ in color making, and is delivered direct, without any charge for packing or handling, to the color-making department, into which we shall shortly enter. The retorts, sixteen in all, require fift3^-five tons of lead weekly to keep them in operation. Next in importance to white lead is zinc white. It is a demonstrated fact that a mixture of white lead and zinc white makes a better paint for exterior work than either singly. While this ma^' seem like heresy to the old-time painter, it is accepted as a fact b}^ unbiased practical men, and by all scientific writers on the subject of pigments and painting. It is the judicious proportions of these two pigments, together with their thorough combination with, and special treatment of the oil, that has made the enviable reputation of " Town and Countr>'" paints. We can devote a few lines only to the description of the manufacture of zinc white. The zinc ore is ground to Man^u^cture ^ ^"^ powdcr and mixed with finely powdered anthra- cite coal. This mixture is burned, in specially con- structed furnaces, on a bed of anthracite previously ignited. The fumes arising are oxide of zinc. They are carefully conducted Zinc White. m ^ THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. through proper conduits to houses filled with bags, throueh which the draft IS forced. The gases filter through thf canvas^SepoS ing the fine white oxide-of-zinc powder. This is the American method, and with unimportant exceptions all made in the United States IS by this method. The European method dififers in first snieltmg the metallic zinc from the ore and subsequently burning it Ihe aifferent grades of zinc white are established simply by the proximity of the product to the furnace different The bags nearer the furnace will contain the oxide of ^''^'^^^• poorest color and mixed with a minute quantity of ash The more distant bags will have the whitest and purest oxide. Nothing is more important to the color-maker than the chrome salt, bichromate of potash. Chrome literally chrome means ' ' color, ' ' and is certainly the great color producer. ^^^^ The Harrison works would not be complete without a department for the manufacture of this valuable salt, and until the establish- inent of this factory there was only one other in the country that had been successfully conducted. Chrome ore a speckled mineral, very hard and heavy, is a combination of oxide of iron and oxide of chromium. It was mined for a long time past in Pennsylvania and Mar>dand, and recently in California. The supply for these works comes principally from California and the dominions of the Sub- lime Porte, where probably the richest ores are found. The hard ore IS first ground to a fine powder, and until the plan of percussion grinding was adopted it was the terror Manu^cturf of millwrights. The powdered ore is mixed with lime and potash (or soda, to make the soda salt) and then roasted at a bright-red heat with free access of air. This causes the oxide of chrornium to take up more oxygen and become chromic acid, and to unite with the lime and potash (or soda) present. The mass when cooled is leached, and the liquors are concentrated and treated with sulphuric acid-~-ever present in chemical processes. This acid takes up a portion of the potash and any lime present, leaving the chromic acid united in double the original proportion with the re- maining potash; hence the name ^/-chromate. This bi-chromate liquor is then allowed to cool and crystallize in large vats or tanks, technically known as dishes. In tlie course of ten days or two weeks the sides and pendent rods are coated with magnificent red crystals, which are drained, dried and packed. The product of these works (managed under a separate organization known as the Kalion Chemical Company) is of unexampled purity, and Composi- tion and Source of the Ores. tHr. i^/ir^.^U,^ iRV OF PAIi\TS. Steam Plant. doing SO has already received special awards at various cliemical exhi- bitions. Having studied the manufacture of the more im- portant chemicals required by the color-maker, we are ready to enter the color-making department; but before we will stop at the boiler plant, which is well Worthy of description. Originally each department had its separ- ate batter}^ of boilers. In several instances the allotted space had been filled up without supplying the demand for steam. Increase was necessar}^ and it became apparent that two batteries would be required for one department. After much consideration, the plan was adopted of concentrating in one building the steam plant for the entire works. An immen.se boiler-house was erected, the noble stack, one hundred and seventy-five feet high seen m the view of the factories given in the fore part of this pam- phlet, was built, and large new boilers of the most recent design were placed in the new house. The pressure carried is one hundred Capacity. pouuds, and the capacity is equal to over two thousand 1 , horse power. A railroad siding is laid on a trestle along the front of the building, permitting the coal to be dumped Kueisup. ''■^^, ^^ ^^^s directly in front of the boilers, minimiz- My and mg the firemen's labor. Forty to sixty tons of hard coal Consumption, are bumed daily, converting into steam from one million to one million five hundred thousand pounds of water The steam is supplied to the works from an immense main steam pipe ov'er one thousand feet in length— the largest of the kind in the country at this time. It is all wrought- iron lap-welded pipe, made by the National Tube ,^?,^*^^- , ^^ begins with a diameter of twenty inches Hud IS gradually reduced to fifteen inches as branches are taken rl frZ"" ^'^r"! ^""^'^^^ ^^^'■^ '^ "^^ «"^ expansion jo t ItTs ' -^ ^^th'^^^^^^^^^ ^'"^^^ ^^™^^^ movem^ent ovei its entire issonu^^^^^^^^ to counteract expansion and contraction. .Ix^^^^l^^ ^'^^" '"^^'^^- ^""^ ^ ^""^^ is visible. This is .. K-' it triumph in a construction of this kind erSon^'^nH ^^^^J' '"^^" P^P^ ^^^"^' including ks The vah^^^^^^^^ jacketing, was over eleven tliousand dol thousalrdolla;^' "' ^^^^ ^"^^^ steam pi .. ; one hundred A^oining theboner.hou.sc ,. tiu compressor room kc^^^n !'•/.:?..'?." '^'^ ^""F -i-^^^n^Pre.ssors. whicli TV f compressed air, at a prefr Cost lars. ^irCotn prraitor*. THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Water Supply and Fire Pump. sure of seventy five pounds, for use in all the departments requir mg It. This has already been mentioned in the description of Uie acid works, and as we proceed we will notice the air Dines ever}^where carr>'ing this useful force which works so silentlv' Back of the boilers -m a large vault running the length of the boiler-house, one hundred and fifty feet— may be seen various pumps, storage tanks, etc., used for collecting and storing all the condensed steam, which is pulled back to the boiler lioiwe t^ be used again in the boilers— a perfect circulation. Near by are the powerful pumps, running night and day to turnish the great quantities of water required. A ten-inch main is scarcely sufficient to supply the works. In a separate building, absohitely fireproof, is a large fire pump, which is arranged to work automatically even when flames so surround it as to render it unapproachable. The steam plant is under the charge of an experi- enced engineer. Connected with it is a large machine Machine shop, where all repairs are made and much new work ^'''*^- IS constructed. All the mills used in the paint department are of special construction, and built in the machine shop. This shop is a special feature, and its importance may be detennined from the fact that, at times, fifty machinists and iron workers are employed. Having examined the various departments where are manu- factured the more important chemicals used in color-making, we may enter the color-making department itself This department is really a group of factories which would ^°'*""* of themselves form an independent business, and there ^e artmJnf are inany prominent firms and corporations whose plant ^^^^ '"^"'' consists only of wlmt in the Harrison works is a single depart- ment. The first minor department we enter is for the manufacfture of American vermilion; this article is a combination of chromic acid and oxide of lead, the latter existing in large propor- tions. It is made by boiling together white lead and bichromate of potash, and subsequently treating the produci with sulphuric acid; the result is a cr>'stalline orange chromate of lead. The Harrison brand is known as " Chinese Imperial Scarlet." Its use was at one time almost universal inagri- cultural-implement nnd wagon fa(51ories, but recentlv the imitation of Knglish vermilion has greatly surpassed it. Considering its cost and durability of color, it is, after all, a ver\' useful pigment, and is yet tlie standard color of many such establishments. '^If the 15 American Vermilion. 'i^Sus^is^ THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Quicksilver Vermilion. crystals be crushed, the color thereby becomes much lighter, or the same as the uncrj^stallized orange chrome. Americau vermilion is very frequently adulterated with red lead and barytes. Next to this, in a separate building, are the cylinders for mak- ing English or mercurial (quicksilver; vermilion. This is a com- bination of sulphur and mercur}-. Mercury or quick- silver, sulphur and a solution of soda are placecl in a heavy iron cylinder so construdled that when it is rapidly revolved a violent agitation of the contents results; great heat is generated, and the sulphur and the mercury unite. Great care is necessary to secure a good color. A natural color of the com- bination of sulphur and mercury is black, and the red color is largely due to friction. The chemical composition of both the black and the red sulphide is precisely the same; the difference is due to a difference in the arrangement of the particles, or what the chemists call the molecules: a chemist would say it is a dif> ference in molecular structure. This fact accounts for the tend- ency of quicksilver vermilion to blacken: it is the tendency of the compound to return to its more 7iatural black state. As there is ahvays an escape of sulphuretted gases in the manufadlure of this article, it is necessary to condu(5l it in an isolated building freely ventilated; othenvise, all the lead colors— such as }'ellow chrome, green, etc.— would be seriously damaged bv the formation of the black sulphide of lead. We all know that one of the most wonderful exploits of chemistry was the discover}^ in nasty coal tar of the most bril- liant dyes. One of these dyes is called eosine. Bv itself it is a most lovely rose color; when the red oxide of lead 'is dved with it. a magnificent vermilion is obtained, as much brighter than the quicksilver vermilion as the latter is brighter than the lead vermilion. This brilliant pigment is known as imitation ver- milion, and is sold under various fanc3'-names, many of the manufacturers adopting the names of the celebrated mines of quicksilver. One of the most famous mines is that of Idria. in Austria; the imitation vennilion made at this factorv is named alter that mine, prefixing the word " New." ' New Idria vermilion is well known to all consumers of vennilion as one of the best of the class. New Idria vermilion ^trnncr^^f ^"^ made from the finest orange mineral dved with the tll^T\^?x:''^\ /^' T ^^^ ^'^^^^^ ^^1^^^' imitation vermilion is ^nS^^^ ^' ^'^^^' ^^^ chief adulterant is barytes: some specimens contain as much as ei^hlv-five per cent. Other x6 New Idria Vermilion. THE CHEMISTRY OF PAEXTS. adulterants are whiting and terra alba. Some are made with the addition of white lead; this requires more eosin, and a beautiful crimson shade is produced. This, however, rapidly fades on ex- posure, and the best and most permanent is that made with orange mineral and eosin only, which give the rich scarlet shade. The operations of making the American and imita- tion vermilions are conducted in large vats or tubs. drying The finished color is then freed of its water as much ^™^' as possible by filtering and pressing, and the moist mass is afterward removed to the drying rooms, where the re- maining moisture is dried out. In the past the final drying required weeks; now days are sufficient. The unscientifically constructed drying closets are replaced by rooms built entirely of brick and iron. Each room is provided w^ith a fan, which forces throughout the entire space a continuous current of warm dr^- air in a complete circulation. The color, in cakes, is placed on trays, which are laid on racks. Each color has its own room. The fans are run by small engines, which operate day and night until the cakes of color are bone dr}-. The room is emptied and filled again, closed up, and the operation continues without the least possible loss of time. Each sub-department of the general depart- ment of color-making has its own drying rooms. From the dry- ing rooms the vermilions are taken to the grinding and sifting apparatus and reduced to the fine state in which they are found in the dealers' hands. The ne.Kt department we visit is that for making yellow and orange chrome. These also are combinations of chromic acid and oxide of lead; but for these, lead salts — the nitrate and acetate of lead — are used. A nitrate of lead will give a yellow with physical properties different from one made of acetate, though both have precisely the same chemical composition. This is again due to the different arrangement of those imaginary atoms called by the chemist molecules. We see large vats in which the various salts are dissolved; when of the right temperature and density, these solutions are run together in large vats, and the color is seen to fall out. This is called * ' strik- ing" the color, and the operation is one of great delicacy. The chemical change is easily understood. Acetic acid and oxide of lead are combined as sugar of lead; this is soluble in water. Chromic acid and potash are combined as bichromate of potash — a salt also soluble in water. When the two solutions come together, the chromic acid goes to the lead, making 17 Chrome Yellow. THE CHEMISTRy OF FAINTS. Theory of chromatc of lead, and the acetic acid goes to the urn Potasli, making acetate of potash. The chromate of • lead IS the insoluble chrome yellow, and falls out of the solution. The acetate of potash is soluble, remains in the hquid with the color, and is finally washed out with pure water This operation is one of precipitation. The reaction is called double decomposition, and the foregoing explanation answers for all colors made by precipitation. This leads us to consider color-making in a more general way We are now in the chief color-maker's office, and find it quite color- ^"°'^^<f ^° appearance to the laboratories referred to on Making a P^p ^- ^^ IS a laboratory as well as an office. The chief Science. color-maker is a chemist who received most of his train- ing in the general laboratories of the works; his assistants are required to be able to make chemical tests, and are expected to familiarize themselves with the chemical knowledge bLnim directly on their work. While color-making involves Aat m.glu be called many 'rule-of-thumb" operations, yet ever>' one t^^fl so-called "rule-of-thumb" practices, when viewedlom a scentific standpoint, is capable of being resolved and amplified into snenUfic practice. Much mysterj- is thrown around this bvT/.r^f^^'''-^"- '"'^'^"^^ '^^P^"^^ "P°n education guided by practical experience. Many of the most valuable chen^^ knlvn^fof ^^%b'^-\evolved from facts or results noticed a" "d known for a long time by workmen, and it is only when some one or the?rv"?T"i;"'r '^' ""^T ""'. ^^^^'^ ^^^^^' ^'"^ ^^^ "-"" IL ;.-?^.,ru ^"^' f'^«^0"^-e<-ed and more fulh- and scientificalh- applied. When, in the color-making department, it is ascertained that brown sugar of lead-an impure salt as compared with the beautiful white crj-stallized sugar of lead-will niake certain colors which the white will not>roduce, we .soon learn that the very impurities, which consist of%yroligneous naUe a ve a SS sTts'on'tf '''^'''\ T^i'^'^P^-^t^ ^J- reactSn c'th^ take Place ?f abs^bft f «'l>'-fo™^ed color-a reaction that would lake piice it absolutely pure chemicals were used without the pyrohgneous mordant or its equivalent. Adulteration • ^^rytes is the Common adulterant of all paints and «rcoior. 's u'.ed immediately Ix^fore or after • • striking' ' t lie cX ra uses increased doses of bar>tes as comiH.-titi<,n I kmrn^Fwrn^ I - ^>« i THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. lowers his pnces. The dishonest painter makes two coats of paint till his contract for three; he buys adulterated oils, or wilfully adulterates them; he will take a strong-bodied and oriRinallv reliable paint, and by reducing it with all the cheap and vile material it will bear will make a profit out of a contract taken at a rate that would net only a loss to the honest man. Fortunately, the great majority of painters are honest; and the crusade against low-grade paints started by the proprietors of the works we are now describing is forcing unscrupulous paint makers to adopt higher standards. While bar>'tes is used almost invari- ably as a mere adulterant, it occasionally serves the purpose of diluting a color, or, more properly speaking, of separating its parti- cles and delaying— or preventing, possibly— chemical reactions which speedily might occur were the color perfedly pure. In its precipitated form, or as blanc fixe, it is an invaluable material when used as a base for certain light lake colors which could hardly be coUecfled but for such a base; so, when the analysis of a color shows the presence of barytes, it is necessary to go farther — and the intelligent analyst knows how to go farther— to discover whether this sulphate of baryta which he finds is the crude native mineral simply ground to a fine powder, or that precipi- tated to impalpable fineness from solutions— the blanc fixe. The proprietors of these works stand alone in having for a long time past steadily and persistently exposed to painters the frauds pracflised upon them; yet they know that sulphate of bar>'ta is like a great many other things in constant use: it may be used prop- erly or it may be abused. On general principles, however, it is safe to turn resolutely from any color which consists largely of barytes. Some colors are wonderfully strong, and may apparnii- ly still be good colors, when there is no standard near for com> parison, and yet may contain ninety-five per cent, or more of this adulterant. To insure success in these days of intense com- petition, not only must the scientific features of color- ch^nTcs^Si making be well understood, but all the mechanics of m k^'^*^' the business must be thoroughly studied. In these ^ ^°^* works every known appliance is used; the agency of compressed air is brought into play wherever possible; the old-style slow- working filter and the hand press are replaced by the filter press, in which machine are combined the two operations of filtering and pressing. Some colors, such as ver- milion, will not readily permit the employment of the FiTter Press. THE CHEMISTRY OF J'AIAJ^. filter press, and for such colors very few modifications of the old processes are practicable. Colors such as chrome yellows, chrome greens, Prussian blues, Tuscan red and the lakes make a thin fluid pulp which may be forced into the filter press through pipes. The thin color is run from the striking tub, after it has been washed, into a vat of sufficient size to hold several batches; in this they are intimately blended, to insure uniformity of shade. Next they are run into a cylindrical vessel made of ver>' heavy sheet copper: this is called vwntjus (meaning to raise liquid); and when filled, the inlet is closed. A pressure of fifty to eighty pounds to the square inch is applied to the surface of the pulp, which forces it from the exit tube opening at the bottom of the vessel and connecting with the press; the press is rapidly filled up, and the cakes of color become very dense, the water being squeezed out by the powerful pressure. The air pressure is used in the color-making depart- ^re^ °d^AiT ^^^^ ^^ move acids and chemical solutions which presse ir. ^^,^^^^^ corrode pumpiug machinery'; the operation is swift, noiseless and certain. The compressed air is also made to do certain other work that formerly was done by the hand of the laborer. The description of the manufacture of chrome yel- Seenl^ low applies also to that of chrome green. This is really a mixture of yellow and blue, and the two colors are thrown down together, which gives a brightness and a per- manency not obtained by simple mixture. When the jellow is taken from the drying-room, it is ready for sale as dry 3'ellow, or for deliver>' to the grinding department to be converted into oil color. Chrome green, before it is packed for sale dry or before it is transferred to the color grinders, is first reduced in dr>' color mills to a fine powder. Sylvan gr^en, so well known Grl^u ^^ ^^^^ trade in general, is made here. This is a ver>' permanent and brilliant green, and it is made in six shades — from ver>' pale to very deep. Chinese Blue Chinese and Prussian blues are ])roduced from pnis- anrp^ssila ^^^^^ ^^ potash and an iron salt — usually copperas. If Blue. ^^e yellow prussiate of potash and copperas be used, the color, when first struck, is ivhite: this by oxidation turns blue, and the oxygen of the atmosphere will effect thischange if sufficient time be given. To obtain quickly the rich deep blues with a lustre of bronze, there must be recourse to powerful oxidizing agents, aided by heat. Strong nitric acid is used for some blues, THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. chlorate of potash for others; and various other agents are em- ployed. Soluble Chinese blue for the laundry is an important feature of the blue department. There is but ver>^ little chemical difference between the ordinary Chinese blue (which is insoluble in water) and that which is soluble; this quality of solubility is obtained chiefly by special manipulation. Blue is very light, and it fonns a very bulky paste; hence for the same product more presses are required in this department than in any other, except- ing in that for the lakes. The advantage of the application of me- chanical principles in increasing the output is not so well shown anywhere else as in this department. Were the old methods of filtering, pressing and drying now in use, at least five times the floor area would be required for the present output. Leaving the sub- department for blues, we enter the factory for the manufacture of Tuscan red and of lake colors. The apparatus in this department is quite similar to that we have seen in the others— the striking tubs, though somewhat different in shape, the filter presses, with the addition of peculiarly-shaped copper vessels, resembling a ball drawn out; these are suspended^ in iron frames which pemiit them to be turned over in order to discharge their contents. These are known as autoclaves or digesters, and their purpose is to extract the coloring matter from dyewoods; the extracted coloring matter, in hquid state, is stored .* ^ 1/- 1 ' A^ * ' • Colors froni away m vats until wanted for use, when it is precipi- Dyewoods. tated, by means of alum, tin salts, barium salts, etc., according to the nature of the lake and the color or shade desired. The texture of some of the very fine colors made in this depart- ment would be injured by the severe pressure of the filter press, and for these, vacuum filters are employed, using an opposite prin- ciple, apparently, but really the same; for by means of a partial vacuum the natural pressure of the atmosphere is in part realized. The principal dyewood used is Brazil-wood, from which is pro- duced the lake most largely used in paint-making, chatemuc. This w^ood also gives us rose pink, which is simply a lake precipi- tated on Paris w^hite. Carmine and its lakes are obtained from cochineal. The carmine apparatus is entirely distinct, and is separated from all the others. The majority of the lake colors are comparatively fugitive: therefore it is desirable to select such material as will give the more permanent colors. Tuscan red is made in this department; generally it ^^^^^^ is simply a mixture of Indian red and rose pink. Har- ^^ risons' new Tuscan red is made upon scientific principles THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. and is the most brilliant and the most durable color of the kind that is known. The enriching lake is almost imperishable, and will bear a temperature of 400° F. without being sensibly affecfted. Tuscan red is a sort of connecting-link between the 'lake colors and the mineral colors. The* 'Town and Countr>^" Ready-Mixed Paint No. 618, which is such a great favorite, is made from this new Tuscan red. Many of the recently-produced coal-tar dyes have much greater Coal Tar pemianency than thosc first made. This enables the p°^enu. paint-maker to give to his trade brilliant pigments that theretofore were unknown. One produced here is the now celebrated Ottoman red — a color much less costlv and of more body than carmine, but equal to it in brillianc}- and per- manence. The machinery' for powdering dr}^ colors is a very iniport- rowderinff ^"^ feature of this large color-making establishment, Machinery. ^^^ ^^ quitc distiudly Separated from the apparatus employed ni the other processes. Mills are the same m principle, as a rule, no matter what their special use, and the description of one answers for all; special mention of them will be made farther on. It will be noticed that great care is taken to isolate each color completely. In one room, in which evervthing IS green, there are several mills, and breakers and great pi'les of green on the floor. To keep the shades of standard goods striclly uniform, 25,000 to 35,000 pounds of the dried color are manipu- lated at one time. The dried color is brought frora the dr}ang- rooms direolly here; it is immediately passed through the breakers and then piled in heaps and mixed thoroughly^ after- ward It is fed to the mills, ground to the required degree of fine- ness, and discharged through spouts into the storai,-e bins on a floor beneath. In the blue-grinding department are two divisions; one is lor soluble or laundr>' blue only, and the other for Chinese and other blues intended stridly for pigment use. In one room the prevailing color is maroon, and here Harrisons' new Tuscan red is ground to an impalpable powder. In the red-millin- department there are three divisions— one for quicksilver vennilion, one for American vermilion and the other for New Idria vermilion As the vennilions are more deleterious to heaUh than other colors precaution is taken to keep the air clear of dust. Over the hoppers of the mills, and over all points where dust mav escape mverted funnels connected with large galvanized iron pipes may TUh: CHEMFSTRV OF PAINTS. Precautions for the Health of the Operatives. Water Purifiera. be seen; these all ruu into one large pipe, in which there is a powerful fan drawing the air through these fu!inel-openings, and with it all the dust. This dust- laden air is forced into a properly-construdled dust chamber, where the greater part of the floating color is deposited; that which is not caught in the chamber is colledled by means of a spray of water. Similar appliances were seen in the oxide and white-lead departments, and are in use where all dangerous dusts arise. Workmen in these departments are required to change their clothing in a special room entirely apart from the work places; aside of this dressing room are large bath and wash rooms, where ever>' facility is afforded for a thorough cleans- ing of the body after quitting work. Leaving the group of factories constituting the color-making department, we pass a detached building in which are several huge vertical iron cylinders with some peculiar attach- ments suggesting steam-boilers. These are the water purifiers. The water used in color-making must be very pure — not merely clear, but free from all soluble impurities, partic- ularly organic matter. These purifiers remove not only the visible, but the invisible, impurities; they give purer water than canbeol>- tained from any settling pond or crystal lake, and are of material aid in securing the brilliancy and richness of the Harrison colors. In the regular course of affairs the operations following the color- making are those for grinding the colors in oil; but before entering the oil-color mill-house we should inspe(5t the dry color-grinding department, where all the earth colors are specially treated to develop their best qualities. In one of the adjoining ^ ^^^^^^ storehouses may be seen great tiers of barrels, casks stor^hou^'^ and hogsheads, the contents of which are suggested by their exterior coloring. Here is a lot of casks holding some- thing very yellow, each package having a peculiar brand burnt into the head; it is an invoice of the celebrated Auxerre ochre. The marks " ss Switzerland 8-22-89" indicate that it was received by the steamsliip Switzerland on August 22, 1889. Adjoining is a pile of frail and awkward-looking packages which contain ftalian siemia; the marks " bk Leandro 5-2-89" indicate that it was received by the bark Leandro May 2, 1889. In this manner each importation is kept distinct. There are a num- ber of stacks of the same kind of packages, some with a reddish look, others with a yellow or brownish stain; they all contain siennas. Some of them are in the raw state, some of them burned. 23 THE CHEMISTRY OF rAIXlS. Those ugly hogsheads, each large enough to hold a ton or more, con- tain umber. This one storehouse is 60 x 1 50 feet, with a convenient drive- way through it; it is filled with these foreign goods: ochres from France; siennas from Italy; umbers from Cyprus and Italy; browns from Germany— a big shipload in all. That immense stock explains the enigma to those color-grinders who are puzzled with the uniformity of the Harrison siennas, umbers, etc. These earth pigments in the original state var}- so much that no two invoices are alike; only by having a varied stock which may be mixed in proper proportions can a uniform color be maintained. In the dr\'-color grinding department the crude earth paints are carefully picked and sorted and dried; they are then Grinding! mixed in the proportions that w411 give the standard Earth Painu, shadcs, and finally ground to an impalpable powder. ^^"^ Even those colors, such as ochres, metallic browns, colcothars, etc, which by all other paint-makers are considered sufl&ciently fine to grind in oil at once, in this establishment first are treated in this department; none of these goods i,and only the finest are admitted here) are fine enough. The careful obsen-er will notice in his journey through these great works the complete independence of one department on another. Thus, in the dry-color grinding department is an inde- pendent engine, enabling work to be done continually, day and night, if the demands of the other departments, which may be run onl}' in daytime, make this necessar\'. No color can be properly ground unless it be bone dr}-; and for dr\'ing purposes may be seen large steam-heated, open dr>'ing pans and steam- jacketed revolving drums of different sizes; also apparatus which both dries and mixes at one operation. Dr>'ing is an important operation, for the tone of some of the colors is much impaired by overheating. The mills are of special construclion. and are almost noiseless in operation. Their w^ork is at variance somewhat with those mills of which it is said, " Though the mills of the gods grind slowlj', Yet theygr^'ind exceeding fine,' for these not only "grind exceeding fine." but grind ver>' quickly and in large quantity. The impalpable color is discharged into tight cars, which are really movable bins, all of one size, holding 500 to 1000 pounds each, according to the nature of the material. These cars are used to store the color until it is required in the oil- oolor mill-house. While the colors which are more directly the product of 34 i4i ^7 140 618 yj [llustration of a cottage painted with Harrisons' ''Town and Country" Ready Mixed Paints. THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Nature ol the Earth Colors chemistry- in so large measure owe their existence to chromium, the colors of this department — Nature's prod- ucts, as it were— owe their being to iron almost with- out exception. The rich brown umbers, the bright sienr^s, the beautiful maroon in all the various shades of Indian red, Venetian red and ochre, — all of them owe their coloring to iron only. Vandyke brow^n owes its color principally to carbon. Ivory black owes its color entirely to carbon. The grinding of colors in oil naturally follows the dry grind- ing; and we now go into a building recently ere(5led oici especially for this purpose upon most carefully devised mui House^ plans, and provided with all the latest and best ap- pliances. While the mechanical methods and processes now employed in many of the important industries w^hich have risen to their present prominence within a comparatively recent period resemble but little the early and hand processes which they have supplanted, the reverse of this is the case in the grinding of colors: the mills are made much more accurately, more highly finished and of material better adapted to the purpose than they were some years ago, but there are no essential changes, and, after all, it is only an evolution from the slab and muller, and no real change in process. The mixer, however, that is now employed can hardly be connedled with the idea of mixing dry color and oil in a keg laboriously by hand. Even the mixer of comparatively recent produdlion, with its one set of fixed and one set of revolving arms, cannot com- pare with the one w^hich is here Uoed, and in w^hich, by means of complex motion, the thorough incor- poration of the pigment and oil is rapidly efiedled, and with economical expenditure of powder. In this great mill house the progress of modern ideas is especially shown in all the arrangements where- by the costly but needful labor and power are mini- mized. . The exterior of the building is necessarily plain; it is so con- strucfted as to cause the complete lighting of the interior by nu- merous large windows, the flood of light reaching the very centre of every floor. Due consideration is also given to ventilation without draught, so that there is as little dust as possible. ^ - .^ a ^ Starting at the third floor, we see here dry colors m the dust- tight, wheeled bins which have been brought over from the dry- 25 Grinding of Colors. Modem Ideas. Ligrht and Ventilation. THE CHEMISTRY OF PALXTS. color grinding department. There are also such stationarj' bins as may be necessary and convenient. Preparing '^Jl? ^""^ material is first passed to the drj-ing the Dry machmes, so that all absorbed moisture may be driven Matenai out and the color property warmed for mixing. It is Mixer. then transferred to accurate scales, carefully weighed and quietly but quickly placed in the mixers, with the oil or other vehicle added in carefully weighed quantities; all of this work IS attended to by a clerk in charge. This preparation and mixing of the colors for the mills is the Appliances P""^!?^! Operation on this floor. Everj' appliance in for Mining. ^°^ ^'^y of trucks, turn-tables, etc. for the rapid move- ment of matenai may be seen; also the necessary oil varnish and japan tanks with their gauges and scales On the second floor we see nothing but mills— big mills and lit- MiUs. *i^ mills, all shapes and sizes— designed especially for the n^^ ^rir,A 7°'''^.rf^'fired of them, one pigment working better in one kind of a mill than m another; and here let it be said that the color is not ground once or twice or any specified number of Fineness of \)^^'- ^^f ^""^^^ secret of the succcss of this e.stab- crinding. "snment is, that the color must be ground until it has ,..,^K ^^^?lied the required degree of fineness, whether the Str ^^^ '* '^ P^^^'' through the mill be one or A feature that will impress the careful obser^•er is the entire absence of iron mills-that is, mills with metallic grind- ing surfaces. It was long ago decided here that these were unfit tor gnnding colors when purity of tone was essential. In a com- partment entirely separate may be seen the mills for grinding coach Color. ^^^ coach colors. The fresco or distemper colors which Fresco Color. ^^ grouud in Water, and the tube colors for artists" and Artisu' Color, decorators' uses, also have special compartments allotted tor their preparation. convS t^T'""} ^^t^^l" ^i^^">' P^^^^'^ by the inspeclor. it is comejed by elevators to the floor direAly below, eniployed for storing and P^fl^ng. Storage and shipping. Much of the finished Packing. paint is packed at once into cans or other packages, carefullv nrnf^tL'^ . '^ "°* ^^^^^^ immediately is deposited in 26 THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Loading Facilities. Winter Stock. This packing floor is at such elevation as to be level with the floors of cars or wagons; railway -tracks pass by the two ends of the building, and all alone one side teams may load. Below this floor is a good high basement, in which is stored all of the output that is packed for stock; here the pro- duction of the winter is accumulated, ready for the de- mands of the spring trade. On the first floor at one time may be seen large orders in prep- aration for the branch houses in New York, Cincinnati and Xew Orleans; to these branch houses shipments are made in car-load This mill house is 75 x 150 feet in area, and it is devoted solely to the preparation of colors. The height from floor to ceiling is quite unusual, insuring good distribution of ^^^c^P^io^ hght The construaion is on the modem slow-bum- ^mxuL.. mg plan, which also insures freedom from dust. The '^'*'''-- elevators are run at high speed, so that the movement of material and produdt is made with quietness, accuracy and dispatch It is noticed that there is no retrograde movement in the handling f lb ^^^^^^^^' ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^ important matter in the saving In an annex is the powerful engine required for this building; also the dynamo for supplying the electric lights used after nightfall on the short winter days ^r when the business requires the department to be run longer than the usual ten hours. We will now enter a much older, though equally substantial building of the same size as the one just left; this is used principally for the preparation of white paints. ^f \^ The white lead manufacturing departments have already ^'" ^' been visited, and are described on pages 10 and 11. From the dr>nng pans or kilns the finished produdt is taken by cars over an elevated track direcflly to the third floor of the building we are now visiting. On this floor the white lead re- ceives a certain quantity of oil, and is chased and mulled so as to induce the saponification that gives to white lead its superior body; this treatment leaves it like putty. The mass is then chuted to the mixers on the second floor, where a Treatment further quantity of oil is incorporated and the proper Lead^*'*^ consistency for grinding obtained. The mills are on the first floor, and are fed direcflly from the mixers; two systems 27 Engine and Dynamo. ::>W. THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. of grinding are used— the new or roller mill and the old or flat circular stone mill. The ground lead is discharged from the mills directly upon the rotating, hollow metal discs of cooling machines, which are Cooling chilled by a constant flow of cold water through them; Process. ^his cooling is essential to the good-keeping qualities of the lead. Proper grinding of the lead continues the chemical action between the oil and the pigment which commenced with the first treatment; chemical action is always accompanied Chemical ^^ ^^^^' ^^^ ^^ Continued for too long a time in the Action. case of white lead and oil, the product is considerably damaged; it is frequently the case that the ground lead is discharged directly from the mills to the packages and then lumps are liable to form or the paint turn to a bad color. All of this is avoided here by drawing the heat oflf and thus checking chemical action. From the coolers the lead goes to storage-tubs of five to ten tons' capacity each, in which it is allowed to season or " age." All the white lead from this factory has a beautiful silky text- Features ^^^> ^^^ is not excelled by any made in the qualities of Harrison extreme whiteness, opacity, fineness and spreading whiteijad. power; in fact, any that equals it is an accidental rather than a regular product. More attention is here given to supplying the particular requirements of different con- sumers than in any other establishment; manv corroders will gnnd their lead in but one way; the boast of this place is that all proper requirements are provided for. A very stiff lead, almost like cheese in consistency, is known as "A" lead, and is especiallv acceptable to those who have been accustomed to old English lead. The *' I. S." is a stiff lead, softer than the "A," but particu- larly adapted for fine inside flat work, where absolute freedom trom gloss is a requisite. A still thinner or oily lead, intended for general outside work IS known as " O" lead. 1 ^.^^.^P^^i^l requirements of those manufacturers who use white lead m large quantities have been carefully studied and provided Lead and . ^^ addition to the grinding of pure white lead and zincPainu. ^mc paiuts, a mixture of zinc and white lead, in- tended for the "Town and Countr^•" paints, is pre- pared in this building. ' ^ 28 THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Oil- Treatment House. The paint for the ready-mixed department is carried to it in iron cars, so arranged as to discharge directly into the ready-mixed paint mixers. Before entering the ready-mixed paint department, a general inspection of the processes of receiving, storing and distributing the oil, and a trip to the oil- treatment house, should be made. The oil is received in barrels or tanks in car-load lots; if in bar- rels, the entire load is run on a long skid over a trough, bungs are drawn and the sixty barrels are drained at one time into the trough, which, by the necessary pipes, discharges into the receiving or storage tanks; these tanks are made of boiler iron and placed at such points as may be conve- nient. When the oil is delivered by car- tanks, it is discharged directly into the receivers by gravity. The storage-tanks are all connected with a general pipe system, by means of which, and the aid of the ubiquitous air-pressure, the oil is distributed to any desired point. The pipe system is extended under one of the main streets to the oil-treatment house, situated in an isolated position beyond the boiler-house, and nearly one thousand feet from the point where the oil is received. The oil treating-house is necessarily of fire- proof construction; in it all the oil used in " Town and Coun- try" paint is clarified and made more elastic and durable by boiling and other processes. For simply boiling the oil there are five hooded kettles, in which 1,700 gallons may be treated at once. The stone- dressers should not pass unnoticed. In a room by themselves may be seen the half dozen men who are constantly at work keeping the mill stones sharpened. The proper operation of grinding is not dissimilar to cutting with shears. The edges must be kept sharp, for when a mill stone loses its ' ' dress" — that is, becomes smooth and glazed — it will not cut the particles of material into smaller particles; it may mull or crush, but it will not grind. An interesting tool for doing this work is the pneumatic stone-dresser, which materially hastens the operation. All of the stone- dressing for the entire plant is done here, the mills being so arranged that both the bed-stone and grinder ma}' be removed. As the manufadlure of the " Town and Country" ready-mixed paints is the culminating work of this establishment, we will mention some other departments before describing the one devoted to this raanufacfture. On our way from the oil-treatment house we take a glance at the stable, aiiy% well lighted, well ventilated, and equipped as it 29 Stone- Dressingr- Minor Features of the Plant- THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Stable. should be for the fortv-five magnificent animals it houses. The draught horses are mostly Clydesdales weighing 1600 to 1900 lbs. each, and when doing their work (without apparent effort) in front of the large and heavily-loaded wagons, they well represent the substantial character of the business. The printing office is a necessar}" adjuncT;; in it every la- Printing ¥^' P^^^ ^i^^' circular, etc. that pertains to the bu- Department. smcss IS prepared; all of the work (including colored plates) of this pamphlet was done in it. Already it has estabhshed an excellent reputation for choice color-work- the inks used are prepared in the color mill-house. Another feature that impresses the visitor is the system of raikoad tracks ramifying the entire plant and connec5ling with TransDor ^11 the trunk lines entering the city; there is over\alf a tation °^^^^ ^l railroad tracks in the works, and these give Faduties. "^^f^^ direa connections wath the main tracks of the t. o .. /^\^^'^7 ^^^^^ passing in proximity. Lving directly on the Schuylkill River, vessels discharge brimstone and other crude material from foreign sources without cost of lighterage or other handling; m fadl, ever}^ facility is afforded for recei\ing material from and shipping it to all points, and for the condud of the business of the establishment upon the most favorable conditions Ready.Mixed r.^T^"'"^^'''^^ .^\^''^^^-^''^ Countr>- rcady-mixcd Paint P^^^^ department, the visitor is impressed by an arrav of Department, tanks carr3ang their height through two floors. These are the mixers, eighteen in all; they are double— that is, one tank withm another— and with internal machiner>' that beats Mixers. ^^^ mixcs the material into a homogeneous con- • ^ .1. . sistency. The pigments and vehicles are char^red into the tanks from the fourth floor of the building. The paste ri Ir ^^j\^i^^^^^^ite are brought up in iron cars; the liquids are delivered by the air-pressure, and when material equal in volume to 700 gallons is placed in each mixer, the powerful machinery is set in motion, and the process of churning, beating ttS ^""^ "^'^'''^ '' continued for two days. Can any hand! method m any way approach this in effectiveness > These mixers are only for making the white base of the painf coloring and ^hc coloHug IS douc in smaller mixers. The power- shading, i^l tmtmg colors are first reduced Tv4th oil in mixers somewhat similar to the large ones described to a verv n^'m?xe"s ir^^he' ri /l"" ^''^' ^^ ^^^ ^^'^^^^ ^^^ S'the coin- ing mixers in the nght proportions to produce the desired tints; 30 Ii ummmaak I THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. skin' ' or Economy of the Manu- facture. Capacity. these coloring mixers make 150 to 200 gallons to each batch From these the fanished pamt is deposited in the storage and filling tanks, whence it is filled into packages as required Before the paint is filled into a package it is strained through a ver>' fine wire sieve which removes every trace of " cv;«'' ^^ coarse particle. All the work is by gravity; the operations com- mence on the fourth floor and the paint is delivered into the packages on the first. The business is con- dudled so systematically that ten thousand gallons of paint may be delivered in ten hours without any pres- sure or confusion. Some of the rules governing this department are w^ell worthy of notice. The shades and tints are maintained to a uniformity by a peculiar system of unchangeable standards. It is well known that white lead, zinc white and colors react on Uniformity of one another chemically, and slowly but surely change ^^^^^^^^"^^• their original tone. Now, to prevent a change in the color- standards they are here made of absolutely non- changeable, inert material, which, while having no paint ^°change- property of itself, senses to give the ''shader" his un- erring standard to w^hich to shade each batch. After the shader has done his w^ork and passed the paint, a practical painter samples the batch, paints it out, and notes carefully its body, working and drv'ing. It can- Tests and not be packed until he pronounces it correct in these ^°^p*^*=''°°- particulars, when the packers may have it. From the pack- ing tanks it is drawm off into a gauged receptacle holding ten gallons. This measure is on a truck scale; when the measure is full to the proper mark it is weighed by a weigh clerk, who compares the weight with the table of weights. If it vary more than one per cent, from the average weight, it is rejected and must be remanipulated. If found correct, it is filled into the desired packages. It is w^ell to note right here that much of the manufacture is packed in one-gallon cans. Much is said about ' * trade' ' gallons and "commercial" gallons. Now, the United States standard gallon is 231 cubic inches. Some Honest manufacturers lay great stress on the alleged fact that their one-gallon cans hold 231 cubic inches; but even so: that does not permit 231 cubic inches of paint to be put in them; in other words, a can cannot be entirely filled. If the "Town and 31 able Color- Standards. THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Country*' one-gallon cans be measured, it will be found that their capacity is nearly 240 cubic inches, and that 231 cubic inches of paint are packed into them. A practice, rapidly dying out, we believe, is to sell what are called "trade" gallons. These hold less than seven pints. A can to hold one gallon should be not less than six and Measure*^ cleven-sixteenth inches in diameter, and six and three- ^^ ^^" quarter inches in height. Height is frequently used to deceive the unwary, as many so-called gallon cans are seven inches high, but only six in diameter, and such a can will not hold quite seven pints. We have seen the manufacture of '*Town andCountr>^" ready- mixed paints from the crudest material to the finished product read}^ for use, and have learned much of the chemistr>' of the subject in plain, matter-of-fact language. A little more may be said in the way of practical chemistr>' , and then some practical suggestions will be given. As the perishing of paint is almost entirely due to the destruc- . tion of the vehicle, and as nearly all the pigments which Paint, ^^^^ fulfil the immediate or first requirements in paint- making are more or less chemically active and aid in the destruction of the vehicle, scientific paint-making requires that the vehicle be rendered as inert as possible to the action of the pigment; and further, in ready-mixed paint-making it is ver}^ Why Town csscntial that chemical action should not take place and Country between the components of the paint while it is in the Paint does package in the store-house waiting for the buyer. In not cbangc. ^Xown and Countr}' paints this chemical action is pre- vented by keeping the paint in a state of emulsion. The water of emulsion must evaporate before the dr}ing action can take place. As this water evaporates, the surface of the paint gradually as- sumes that smooth and even condition which produces the hard, glossy, durable surface for which these paints are so renowned. Unfortunately, this plan of paint-making permits the unscrupu- lous manufacturer to palm off water for paint when the quantity- introduced is more than sufficient for its proper use. Such a paint, however, will not be used by the practical painter or by any one who is a fair judge of paints. A good test of this paint is weight; taking the pale tints, which must contain the maximum of zinc and lead base. When properly made, the emulsified paint weighs 13 to 15 pounds per gallon; the water paints will weigh but q to II. This rule will not apply to those dark colors which 32 THE CHEMISTRY OE PAINTS. do not permit the use of any white in their preparation. These may be made of pigment and oil only, and weigh but 9 pounds. In the Town and Country paints the oily vehicle is simply the purest linseed oil that is made, very carefully treated to make it durable, kept by emulsion in an inert condition until used, and rendered fluid for working under the brush by the addition of naphtha, which more than any other vehicle has the property of thinning a paint, and therefore may be used in smallest proportion; furthermore, ever>' atom of this evaporates on drying, so that the pure pigment and durable oil only are left on the surface. The reader who has followed these pages to this point is with- out doabt convinced that it would be difficult to find a paint su- perior to that produced in this estabhshment, and doubtless he beheves that the proper place for mixing the paints — as it is for grinding them — is the factory. The change of the present day to paints ready mixed, or en- tirely prepared for use, is in conformity with the gen- ^hy there eral advancement of the age: it is not revolutionary or ^^^ R^^^y- extraordinar>'; it is simply a step in a natural evolu- Mixed Paints. tion or progression. As the grinding of dry paints by hand with slab and muller was succeeded by the employment of steam machinery, so the mixing of paste paints by means of a stick into a condition for use has been superseded also, in its turn, by the use of mechanism specially designed. It is merely a repetition of the story we see everywhere around us: manual labor with its drudgery, want of uniformity, and want of completeness giving place to the perfection of scientific appliances. Not only does the use of ready-mixed paints constitute a gain to the painter in convenience and economy, saving drudgery, waste and time, but, what is of even greater importance respecially to the property owner), there is also a material gain — when standard brands, such as the Town and Country, are purchased— in the quality of the paints obtained. Under the old method of paint- mixing it is impossible to incorporate with the pigment niore than a certain quantity of oil without interfering with its working qual- ities. Oil, however, is really the life of paint; it is mainly from the oil that paint obtains its preser\^ative virtue, and it may be laid down as an axiom that the more oil (consistent with the re- tention of proper working qualities), and the better the oil, the better the paint. This is one reason why the Town and Country paints are found so superior in durability to white lead mixed 33 Ready-Mixed Faints not antagonistic to the work of the Prac- tical Painter. THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. in the ordinary way, and it partially explains the gain in quality referred to above. The method of the preparation of these paints causes the incorporation of a much larger percentage of oil than has been possible by previous methods. When we add to this the fact that the process employed gives also a rich gloss or finish unobtainable in any other way, which, besides adding greatly to beauty of appearance, enables the paints to resist more effectually the action of the elements, the superiority of the new system over the old will be apparent. The advantages of a paint read}- for use (ready for use except- ing the addition of more oil for raw surfaces) are now so w^ell recognized that nothing need be said in their favor, thfng, there Much Condemnation of ready -mixed paints is heard be- any^coSnte^ causcso many are inferior and give such unsatisfactory feit. results. But no one condemns real money because there is counterfeit mone\% and no one condemns white lead or painters' colors because much that is sold is counterfeit. We know that good and pure may be had, and when once we are made acquainted with the reliabilit}- or lack of it in different brands, we are no longer imposed upon. So with paints ready for use. Some are good, many are bad. When we learn to discrim- inate between the good and bad, and use only the former, we shall recognize full}' their value, their superiority for exterior work to any hand-mixed paint. At one time skilled painters feared that giving up the control of mixing the paints they used might prove detrimental to their business; but so many have admitted the groundlessness of such fear b}^ their regular use of high-grade mixed paints that this sub- ject need no longer be considered. The manufacturers of ''Town and Country'" paint prefer that other paint be used by any one who will not employ a competent painter, because unskilled painters cannot do good Painters use work, and their lack of skill and experience leads to Rlfdy^Mii^ the condemnation of the paint used by them. Ver>' Paints. few competent painters, and none who have intelligent- ly tested it, will deny the superiority of the ' ' Town and Countr}^" paint for exterior painting when compared with the best shop- or hand-mixed material. They recognize its ad- vantages, just as they recognize the advantage of buying white lead and colors already ground, instead of buying the dr>' pig- ment and vehicle separately and grinding them together in the shop; no one could do that now and earn his salt. 34 THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. While it is an unquestioned fact that but few painters — and only those of great capacity and experience — can produce shades of color of such beauty and richness as are furnished, ready for use, in the ''Town and Countr\'" paints, and, while it is also true that painters, whatever their training, cannot produce paints of similar quality by the means at their command, still, the object of the manufacturers is not to do away with, but rather to sup- plement, the painter's work. There is no antagonism possible or intended. The manufacturers of *' Town and Country" paints, so far from endeavoring to lessen the use of experienced labor, most strongly urge and recommend its constant employment. They recognize that the greater the skill of the workman the better the results obtained from their material, and the better these results the more advantageous it is for the reputation of their paints, and, consequently, for their interests. To obtain satisfactory results it is not only essential to have the best material, but that material must^be properly used. If work be done regardless of the con- ditions necessary to insure permanency, failure is simply invited and must be expected. Too much stress cannot be laid upon selecting the proper time for painting. Work done in wet weather or on rain- soaked wood or sappy or unseasoned wood is alrnost certain to fail. Work done hurriedly or with thick, heavy coats of paint is also almost certain to result in disappointment. See that your painting is done in dry weather, ample time is given between coats for each to dry; see that no more paint is used than is necessar>-; see that all new work has three coats. Three thin coats will take less paint than two heavy coats and will wear better and longer. Above all things, see that you have an experienced, capable and honest man to do your work. Such a workman will probably give better results with poor material than the incompetent man will with the best material. Some manufaaurers guarantee the durabihty of their pamt, and, strange as it may seem, some of the poorest Guarantee, paints are most strongly guaranteed. The *'Town and Countr>^" paint is sold simply on a warranty of its punty and composition, and this warranty will be accompanied by any reason- able penalty required. The manufacturers know from a long experience that properly used, and used under proper conditions nothkig but the best results can be obtained, and they will not Suggestions in Using Paint. Hints on the Application of Paint. See that THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. hold themselves responsible for the ignorance or cupidity of the property owner or the inexperience or dishonesty of the one ap- plying the paint. It is absolutely necessary for good results that the original surface be put in good condition. It is a common error, even with experienced painters, to believe that anything ^"d°^h ^'^^^ ^^ ^^^ priming; but as the priming coat bears NecJLa^. the same relation to the succeeding coats that the foundation of a building bears to the superstructure, it is as fallacious to expect durability from a bad priming coat as permanence from a building that has a poor, uncertain or bad foundation. In many buildings the lumber is inferior, wet, or unseasoned. In such cases the priming coat should be applied when the weather is driest, and allowed to remain for some weeks before applying the other coats. The oil appears to displace the sap, hastening its evaporation. If the succeeding coats were applied at once, the sap would be held in, and finally result in peeling or scaling the paint. If the wood be well seasoned, no more time need be given after its application than sufficient to dry the priming coat thoroughly. The essential properties of the priming coat are to fill the pores and make a surface to which the succeeding coats will .^ firmly adhere. Therefore, the pigment should be one Properties that will Carry a large quantit}^ of oil, and still make a prfmer°^ Workable paint, and also be chemically inactive, yet in such mechanical condition that its particles will at- tach themselves to the grain of the wood. White lead does not fill all of these conditions so well as certain ochres that are free from clay, but which contain free silica in a sharp but finely- divided state. An ochre that will not carry three times its own weight of raw oil, and at the same time be a fairly thick paint, will not meet the requirements. To m^et all these conditions, Messrs. Harrison Bros. & Co. 'Town and ^^^'^ prepared their "Town and Country" primer and Country'" filler, and this has proven to be the most suitable pnmer and article yctofi'ered for the purpose. While this should be applied freely, it is to be thoroughly worked into the surface. If a heavy coat be applied to sap or yellow pine and al- lowed to stand for several months, it will be found that the sap or resin has been killed; this may then be cleaned oflf and the work finished, with most durable result. Work will not stand when finished at once, on green, sappv. resinous or waterlogged wood. 36 TKfcU^ ' -^UTi 1 " THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. As previously stated, not only is much of the ready-mixed paint that is offered for sale worthless, but so are many ^ ^^^^ of the painters' colors and much of the white lead, and i„pu„oii. therefore one is liable to as much imposition, unin- tentionallv or otherwise, on the part of the vender in buymg the ingredients separately and mixing them himself as ^^^^^ ^^^ in buying them in mixed form. In fact, at this time in Mixing ( 1 89 1 ) there is more danger from sophisticated linseed oil ^^^^fX and oil substitutes than even from white lead and colors. An intelligent painter, writing from a Western city of 40,000 population, states that nearly all the painting done there m a year was with oil retailed at less than one-half the crusher's The con- price for linseed oil, and asks, Can any sensible man be J»»«JJ;S surprised at the general dissatisfaction with painting ? Quality in Poor pigments and good oil are a better combination u^i-counS^" than the best pigments and sophisticated oil. In using paints. • ' Town and Country ' ' paints the consumer is assured of not only the use of the best quality of oil and the best pigments, but the verv best combination of them known in modern paint-makmg. It is absolutely impossible to give a paint m mixed forni— that is of the proper consistency— for all kinds of surfaces and all sorts of temperatures. When the surface is very raw or ^^.^^ ^^^^ absorbent, a thinner paint must be used than for a hard beofcon- or non-absorbent surface; and a paint that is of the I^^IZ^. right consistency for work in a temperature of 50 or tionsof sur^ 60® will be found quite too thin in a temperature 01 »o xemperaturt. or QO° In "Town and Country" paint the consist- encris just right for a hard surface and moderate temperature, and in general for a fini.shing coat. Oil or turpentine, or both, must be used for the undercoats, and these are the only articles to be pro^•ided in addition to the "Town and Country pamt. It therefore becomes necessary that every one using Town and Country" paint assure himself that the oil or turpentine used is perfectly pure and of the best quality. ,• j -, It is not contended that the use of cheap oils or linseed-oil Mihstitutes is never justifiable, for there are occasions when painting is for temporary purposes only, and it may be wise to use matenal of only temporary value; but what is unjustifiable is vendine impure oil or oil substitutes as pure linseed oil; and it ^ems to us that the linseed-oil manufacturer and consumer have the same right to protection by law against such pradice as the datryman !nd the butter consumer have against the sale of 37 7!^^- THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. oleomargarine as genuine butter. As the sale of oleomargarine as such is not objected to, so there cannot be any objection to the sale of substitute oils as such. Our talk about priming has had reference to new work mainly. The repainting of a surface when the old paint has thoroughly perished — that is, has become like dust — is quite a of^lintlr/ simple matter. After the surface has been thoroughly Surfaces. saud-papercd and dusted the primer and filler maybe used as for new w^ork, or the color in which the work is to be finished applied at once; but not more than two coats, the first coat made very thin with raw linseed oil and some turpentine. The "Town and Country" paint of usual consistency should be thinned for such work with about one quart of oil and one pint of turpentine to each gallon. The turpentine aids it to penetrate the pores of the old paint. When the old paint is very hard, but inclined to chip oflf, very great care is required to produce good results, because the new paint on top of the old will, by the contradlion in dr>ang, causes the latter to loosen its already feeble hold, and old and new come off together, The old paint will not permit the penetration of the new paint through it, so as to give it a new bond to the wood or original surface, and it is not sufiiciently bonded to resist the con- tra<5tion of the new coat in drying; thorough scraping must first be resorted to. Unless the color is to be changed, it is best to give such a surface but one coat, as thin as it is possible to work it and cover properly. If the color is to be changed, give two coats, but with an interval of several weeks, and each coat as light as it can be worked. New work should always have three coats, the first to be New Work ^^ primer and filler, as previously directed. The second and third coats are to be of the color selecfled. The '*Town and Country" paint for second coat is to be thinned with about one quart of oil and one pint to one quart of tuq^entine to each gallon, or half the quantity of perfectly sweet naphtha may be used in place of the turpentine. Naphtha containing coal oil will injure the paint, and must not be used under any circum- stances. This coat must be well brushed out. For the'finishing coat the "Town and Country" paint is usually of proper consist- ency; if too stout, add raw linseed oil only in just sufficient quan- tity to make the paint work freely under the brush. On every package of paint a few plain and explicit direAions are given. 38 THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS. Economic House- Painting. It is obvious that the quantity of paint required will vary ac- cording to the state of the surface to be painted. For new work on lumber fairly smooth and of good quality ^eTu^J^ it wnll be safe to estimate 275 to 300 square feet of sur- face per gallon, three coats, used as above diredled, about two- fifths to be primer and filler. On a surface properly prepared with Primer and Filler, one gallon of "Town and Country" paint will cover 400 square feet or more of surface, two coats. The great economv of the paint is at once apparent. Economic house-painting, it is thus seen, does not depend upon buving the lowest-priced materials; such general- ly have but little pigment or vehicle value, and are, therefore, relatively dearer; and they lack the element of durability. That paint is best which can be laid on in the thinnest layers. The cheap nostrums must be " flowed on" in thick layers, otherwise the surface will not be covered. Bear in mind, the Harrison establishment is the only one in which are conducted all the processes of manufaaure, from the crude material to the finished produd. When measuring for quantity required do not make any al- lowance for window and other openings, as they will ^^^^^,^^^ not any more than equal the extra surface of frames, mouldings and other projections. It is quite proper to take the lenffth, breadth and height of a building m full. Positive rules for the selection of colors cannot be given. It is probably one of the most difficult features m the work ^^^^ ^^ of beautifying the home; so difficult is it that the prop- colors, ertv-owner will frequently waive his or her natural sood taste to the judgment of the painter. .^ This is well when the painter is progressive, has fine taste and will continually workout new color schemes, instead of (as is too frequently the case) follow- ine one idea, and that usually very dull or inharmonious. The grlat variety of colors in the "Town and Country pam s permits fven- possible color scheme to be followed^ One well-pamted house in a community that has had a long affliction of ^^^^^ stone color or drab creates an improvement m the gen- Painting eraftaste, leading quickly to the betterment of the en- i-p-- tire neighborhood and increases the value of property. It values. is now quite common to find suburbs of cities of most Sctresque appearance, due entirely to the use of "Town ^nd SS^^ bright and harmonious combination of the difi;er- ent shades As it is impossible to give satisfactorily m words a gmde 39 THE CHEMISTRY OF PAIXTS. for the selection and application of colors, some illustrations are furnished as suggestions of good color effect; but print- iiiustrauona. ^^^, ink fails to do justice to the subject. The parent house or any of its branches will suggest combinations on receipt of architect's elevation, photograph or sketch of building, and will give full directions for the placing of each color. To aid in this work the proprietors have published, at great expense, fn^how' ^ portfolio of fift}' designs on a large scale. These are obtainld. in the hands of their agents, of architects and of prom- inent builders, and are for the use of any one intending to buy or use the paint. An>' one addressing the house will be in- formed w^here a portfolio may be seen, or will be loaned one under certain conditions. Due regard must be given to the architecture of the building . . .^ , in both the selection and the application of the colors; Architecture , , . , . . ^^ . i • i ■ i I- of Building though, HI general, an^- combination which is good of conAdered. itself may be used, provided each element is properly proportioned. Harmonious color selections may be made from either analo- gous colors or complementary colors. It has become common to use the latter sj^stem, yet it is one which requires the best devel- opment of the color sense, and for this reason better results are generall}^ obtained by one with natural good taste than by one without who attempts to apply the theory of complementaiy colors. Where there is a combination of the two systems, ver>^ pleasing results are obtained; for instance, a gradation from an olive brown to alight but warm yellow tint. This subject, how- ever, can be covered satisfactorily by illustrations only. ** Town and Countr>'" paints are intended primarily for exterior ^^^^ ^ house-painting, but, properly used, they make an Country" equally good interior paint. For plastered walls they where'used. ^^^ exceptionally valuable, making a finish that will permit continued cleaning. For the plastered w^alls of kitchens and bath-rooms they make a finish inferior in value only to glazed tile. For floors they will not dry flinty enough unless applied in Floor-Paint- nuiuerous thin coats; for such use they should be thin- ing. n^(j well with refined naphtha (benzine). For floor- painting it is best to use Harrisons' Floor Paints, which are espe- |\- cially prepared for such purpose; these are actually hardened by ^ washing and are ver>^ resistant to ordinarv* wear. For furniture-painting a diflferent system is necessary. Paints 40 I tmm' THE CHEMISTRY OF PAINTS, Fumiture- Palnting. as prepared for house-painting will not do for furniture. Harrisons' Varnish Carriage Paints or Interior Deco- rative Enamels may be used for furniture-painting or decoration with most satisfactor>' results. '^Town and Countr}'" paints have been found eminently dur- able and economical for vessel-painting, and are recom- vessei- mended for such use. ^'f''^- Testimonials could be furnished ad nauseam. Better evidence of the value of these paints than their long-continued ^^^^^^^^^^^_ use by the most intelligent painters cannot be offered. There are many who cannot appreciate the difference between good and bad, but the Harrison estabhshment does not exist for We have already made our journey through this extensive plant longer than originally intended, and in conclusion Conclusion. are pleased to state that any one interested m paints and painting is cordially invited to visit it and see for himself what these pages are intended to describe. THE SND* 41 ALL PAINTS BEARING THE NAME OF HAREISON BROTHERS & HO. AND CLAIMING BY THE LABEL TO BE PURE ARE GUARANTEED TO BE OF ABSOLUTE PURITY.